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Hose residing on isolated branches outside of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Outlier sequences on the other hand were defined as those residing on basal branches of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank [JX244899-JX244948 for gag and JX244949JX245003 for nef]. Clinical and demograp
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Ing time (mean generation time = mgt) was calculated according the formula: N = N02T/mgt. On the average, doubling time of ZK cell lines is between 12 h to 16 h in RPMI complete medium (Fig. 2). Like their parental primary AMs isolated from the MS-/- mice, all of the cell lines are adherent but trypsin-sensitive for passage. Morphology Light microscopic examination of Diff Quik, a modified Wright-
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Cpx (4 each), and clades A, F, CRF01_AE and CRF36_cpx (2 each). In addition, 22 of the studied viruses apparently had nef and gag genes from viruses belonging to different clades, with the majority (8/10) having either a nef or gag gene derived from CRF02_AG. Interestingly, five gag sequences (10 ) and three (5 ) nef sequences were neither obviously recombinant nor easily classifiable into any
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Nowledgements The authors are grateful to Andile Nofemela and Roman Ntale for technical assistance with viral sequencing. This research was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (technical co-operation project RAF/6/ 029), Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, for collaborative projects with partners in the global South. We thank Ger
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Pacity of latex beads similar to primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II. All three clones showed significantly decreased uptake of fluorescent latex beads compared to the wild type primary AMs (Fig. 6A). Observed differences in phagocytic capacity between these clones and parental primary AMs from MS-/- mice may reflect the heterogeneity seen in populations of primary alveolar macrophages.ZK1
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Zed SRBCs, only rare unopsonized SRBCs appeared bound to ZK1 cells; most cells did not have any unopsonized SRBCs attached. After binding, these unopsonized SRBCs were easily lysed away (Fig. 5A). Approximately 80 of ZK1 cells were positive for FcR-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized SRBCs (Fig. 5B). Similar results were seen in ZK2 and ZK6 clones (data not shown). Decreased binding and phagocytos
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Hat three clones ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 were obtained by limiting dilution and further characterized. Our PCR genotyping results verified these three clones, ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 are MARCO-/- and SR-AI/ II-/--deficient (Fig. 1). These cell lines are able to grow rapidly in RPMI or DMEM complete media in the absence of exogenous M-CSF or other growth factors, and their doubling time is 12?6 h on the average
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Trees were constructed from these sequences with 100 full maximum likelihood bootstrap replicates (implemented in PHYML [14]), following either complete removal of recombinant sequence fragments or the division of recombinant sequences into their constituent fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3 [15]. The recombination screen was fully exploratory in that eve