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R protein; AbPP-Ab: amyloid-b peptide; AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer's disease; CER: Ceramide synthase; ChAT: choline acetyltransferase; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; GSK-3b: glycogen synthase kinase-3b; H E: hematoxylin and eosin; HFD: high fat diet; HNE: 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; i.p.: intraperitoneal; IGF: In